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04 July 2016

The Global Afrikan Political Time of Day[Part 2]: Mhenga Marcus Mosiah Garvey

The Global Afrikan Political Time of Day[Part 2]:
Mhenga Marcus Mosiah Garvey

Ambakisye-Okang Dukuzumurenyi
[Ph.D., Public Policy Analysis]
2016-07-04



A course of action by Global Afrikan peoples that may contribute to the alteration of this state of affairs is the propagation of the idea that in order to make certain that there is Kulinda [Kiswahili: Preservation, Protection, Conservation], Udumishaji [Kiswahili: Perpetuation, Permanence], Uendelezaji [Kiswahili: Prolongation, Flourishing, Developing] of the NIWT/Niu.t [Kush/Kemet: Community] there must be an Itikadi [Kiswahili: Ideology] that coalesces the cognitive, affective, psycho-spiritual and psycho-motor aspects of the Utambuzi wa Wafrika Weusi [Kiswahili: Consciousness of Black Afrikans] focusing attention on Mvu ya Ankh [Kiswahili: Spiral of Life], Afya ya juu Kabisa [Kiswahili: Optimal Health], Ustawi wa Afrika [Kiswahili: Afrikan Prosperity], Umoja wa Afrika [Kiswahili: Afrikan Unity], Uweza wa Afrika [Kiswahili: Afrikan Power] and Uongozi wa Afrika [Kiswahili: Afrikan Leadership, Management].


All Mapokeo Afrikan Itikadi are infused by MЗ‘T/Maat and express unity in diversity as seen through the Methali wa Afrika [Kiswahili: Afrikan Proverbs]:

Mimi ni kwa sababu sisi ni. [Kiswahili: I am because we are.]
Mtu ni watu. [Kiswahili: A human being is human beings.]


In times past all Afrikan Mapokeo communal organizations utilized an Itikadi that was similar to the concept of MЗ‘T/Maat [Kush/Kemet: Truth, Justice, Harmony, Balance, Order, Reciprocity, Propriety] employed by Utamaduni Mkubwa ya Kush/Kemet. 


The Itikadi created by the Wahenga na Wahenguzi on behalf of the Beautyful Ones Not Yet Born to be implemented by the NIWT/Niu.t in contemporary times is an Afrocentric Pan-Afrikanism to be differentiated from the coopted contemporary pseudo-Pan-Afrikanism which is an abortive attempt to integrate the neo-colonial economies of the continent.



An Afrocentric Pan-Afrikanism is the Pan-Afrikanism of Mhenga Marcus Mosiah Garvey c. 6128- 6181 KC [c. 1887-1940 CE] adapted and adjusted to 62nd Century KC [21st Century CE] Afrikan concerns.


A powerful theorist, orator, organizer and mobilizer Mhenga Marcus Mosiah Garvey constructed, organized and mobilized the largest mass movement ever of Waafrika Weusi of the Afrikan Continent and of the Utawanyika wa Waafrika Weusi Duniani [Kiswahili: Afrikan Diaspora]


Active early in his life in the British colony of Jamaica's nationalist movements, which pressed for Jamaican independence from British colonial control, Mhenga Marcus Mosiah Garvey traveled extensively throughout the Caribbean, Central and South America, and lived for a time in the United Kingdom where he worked with the Sudanese nationalist Duse Mohamed.


To further his political and economic goals, in c. 6155 KC [c. 1914 CE] Mhenga Garvey organized the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League [UNIA-ACL] in Jamaica.


The unifying adage of the UNIA-ACL of “One God, One Aim, One Destiny” had deep roots in the socio-spiritual experience of Waafrika Weusi and the objective of the organization was WHM MSW/Weheme Mesu ya Afrika [Kush/Kemet: Afrikan Re-awakening, Rebirth, Resurgence, Re-generation, Renewal, Renaissance], an Waafrika Weusi redemption of Afrika from Eurasian conquest and colonization and to carry out the socio-cultural, socioeconomic and socio-political reconstruction of the Global Waafrika Weusi population. 


The UNIA-ACL emphasized conscious satisfaction in Blackness, Waafrika Weusi solidarity, Afrikan self-reliance and the socio-political and socioeconomic independence of all Waafrika Weusi, where ever in the world they may be under the adage “Afrika for the Afrikans, those at home and those abroad!”


In c. 6157 KC [c. 1916 CE] Mhenga Garvey journeyed to the United States at the invitation of Mhenga Booker T. Washington to study Mhenga Washington's program for Waafrika Weusi socio-political economic development as it was being applied at the all Afrikan learning institution the Tuskegee Institute, but unfortunately Mhenga Garvey arrived just after Mhenga Washington's mysterious death.


Mhenga Garvey’s interest in Mhenga Washington's program stemmed from his analysis that the industrial economic program of Mhenga Washington was one cog in the grandiose plan for WHM MSW/Weheme Mesu ya Afrika.


The other necessary components of WHM MSW/Weheme Mesu ya Afrika were an Afrikan-centered Pan-Afrikan socio-political program designed to free all Waafrika Weusi from Eurasian domination and a Pan-Afrikan military apparatus, which would support and protect Waafrika Weusi revolutionary political-economic goals from Eurasian counter-revolutionary policies and actions.


Mhenga Marcus Mosiah Garvey sought to resurrect in the Waafrika Weusi of the Afrikan continent and the Afrikan diaspora the basic tenets of millennia old Mapokeo Afrikan Nation-building so as to allow all Waafrika Weusi to engage knowledgeably and successfully in the socio-political, socio-economic and military reconstruction of the NIWT/Niu.t [Kush/Kemet: Community] of the Afrikan continent and in the Utawanyika wa Waafrika Weusi Duniani.


Following the horrific racial pogrom- the East St. Louis Massacre of c. 6158 KC [c. 1917 CE] and after traveling extensively throughout the United States and South and Central America, Mhenga Marcus Mosiah Garvey established a branch of the UNIA-ACL in the United States. 


The purpose of his travels both in the United States as well as throughout the southern portion of the Western Hemisphere and in Europe and of his conversations with Afrikan Nationalists like Duse Mohammad and his extensive reading on the Afrikan continental situation, was to study firsthand the conditions and the causes of those conditions of Waafrika Weusi on the Afrikan continent and throughout the Utawanyika wa Waafrika Weusi Duniani and to design, implement and evaluate for further corrections, a proper course of action for Afrikan reconstruction, development and expansion.[1] 


To support the programmatic objectives of the UNIA-ACL Mhenga Garvey established a provisional Afrikan government in exile, a Waafrika Weusi economy in the United States the centerpiece of which was the newspaper publication The Negro World, an authentic Black media voice and the Black Star Steamship Shipping Line, which was an international shipping company and an assortment of businesses under the Negro Factories Corporation and the Black Cross Trading and Navigation Corporation as well as agricultural land throughout the United States and extended negotiations for the acquisition of large tracts of land in Liberia, West Afrika for resettlement.


Furthermore, Mhenga Garvey organized international conventions on Afrikan continental and Utawanyika wa Waafrika Weusi Duniani development and published The Negro World weekly providing Waafrika Weusi with an Afrikan owned and controlled media source which provided a decidedly Afrocentric or Afrikan oriented Waafrika Weusi viewpoint on global issues of specific importance to Waafrika Weusi. 


No other Afrikan organization on the Afrikan continent or in the Utawanyika wa Waafrika Weusi Duniani in contemporary times has had the impact of the UNIA-ACL. At its height the UNIA-ACL had branches throughout North, South and Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, Europe and Australia. 


Throughout colonized Afrika in the period between c. 6157-6171 KC [c. 1916-1930 CE], The Negro World was banned by every colonial power.


In places such as Kenya The Negro World newspaper would be smuggled in by sailors and then it would be read by Waafrika Weusi, who were literate in Eurasian languages, to large groups. 


The paper would also be memorized verbatim by Afrikan youth who would then travel to the Vijiji [Kiswahili: Villages] of rural Afrika and recite the whole of the paper to the majority rural populace.


The fear on the part of the colonial powers was that the Itikadi of Mhenga Garvey and the UNIA-ACL would provide a necessary unifying element to the many disparate counter-colonial movements occurring in Afrika at the time.


Mhenga Marcus Mosiah Garvey, was a 61rst Century KC [20th Century CE] link in the millennia long Afrikan chain which stretches back into Kale [Kiswahili: Antiquity] to the first nation-builders of the earliest Utamaduni Mkubwa in the world in Classical Afrika: the Utamaduni Mkubwa ya Kemet and Utamaduni Mkubwa ya Kush beginning conservatively c. 8759 KC [c. 13000 BCE] continuing through the Classical Empires and states of West Afrika, such as Wagadu [Ghana], Neni [Mali], and Songhai, c. 4541-5832 KC [c. 300-1591 C.E.], extending to the Maroon NIWT/Nu.t of the Americas, i.e., Waafrika Weusi who escaped from enslavement and founded militarily protected Afrikan socio-economic and political NIWT/Nu.t and on into the founding of the Ayitian Republic c. 6045  KC [c. 1804 CE] during the early contemporary era of the Maafa Mkubwa c. 5685-6129 KC [c. 1444-1888 CE].


The tradition of nation-building of which Mhenga Garvey is but a link reaches us today through the Pan-Afrikan nationalist programs, policies, writings and speeches of such great Afrikan Wahenga na Wahenguzi as:

1) Mhenga Malcolm X assassinated by the United States government and American Afrikan neo-colonial compradors in c. 6206 KC [c. 1965 CE],


2) Mhenga Walter Rodney of the Caribbean assassinated in c. 6221 KC [c. 1980 CE] by the United Kingdom government and Jamaican Afrikan neo-colonial compradors, 


3) Mhenga Mwalimu Julius Karambage Nyerere revolutionary independence leader and first President of the East Afrikan nation of Tanzania c. 6202-6226 KC [c. 1961-1985 CE], whose programs and policies have been significantly betrayed by Afrikan neo-colonial compradors with the aid of Eurasian powers,


4) Mhenga Osagyefo Kwame Nkrumah revolutionary independence leader and former Prime Minister of the West Afrikan nation of Ghana c. 6192-6201 KC [c. 1951-1960 CE], and then President of Ghana c. 6201-6207 KC [c. 1960-1966 CE] who was removed from power in a coup de tat by Afrikan neo-colonial compradors working with the United States and the United Kingdom governments,


5) Mhenga Patrice Okit’ Asombo Lumumba c. 6166-6202 KC [c. 1925-1961 CE] revolutionary independence leader and first Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo c. 6201 KC [c. June 1960-September 1960] who was assassinated by Belgian, and US colonialists with the support of Afrikan neo-colonial compradors and


6) American Afrikan historians and social scientists, such as Mhenga Drusilla Houston, Mhenga Chancellor Williams, Mhenga John Henrik Clarke and Mhenga John G. Jackson.


Mhenga Garvey while being a prolific writer of legal, political, economic, poetic, historical and opinion pieces was also an avid reader, student and analyzer of Utamaduni Mkubwa ya Afrika history and drew inspiration and programmatic policies from the ideas of the Wahenga na Wahenguzi during his studies. 


For example, Mhenga Garvey advocated what he called ‘Civilized Capitalism’ whereby a cap was placed on capital earnings and then all additional earnings above the cap would go to the grassroots of the society, the cap being set at 50,000 USD in c. 6162 KC [c. 1921 CE]  or approximately 2,000,000 USD in c. 6254 KC [c. 2014 CE].

His prolific studies and the influences of Henry Hubert Harrison and Duse Mohammed,[2] took him into the political, economic and spiritual system of Utamaduni Mkubwa ya Kush and KMT/Kemet and he utilized this in forming the well-known Tri-colors of Afrika flag of the Garvey Movement.


The red, black and green colors of the Tri-colors of Afrika flag of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and Afrikan Communities League [UNIA-ACL] were taken from the Temples of Utamaduni Mkubwa ya Kush and KMT/Kemet.


The philosophical ideas behind the Garveyite Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the name of which was almost immediately upon its founding changed to the Afrikan Orthodox Church were based on his studies of the Kushite and KMT/Kemet Deity, HRW/Heru the divinely conceived son of ЗWST/Auset and ЗWSЗR/Ausar.


Mhenga Garvey determined that Christianity was merely a rough carryover of the worship of HRW/Heru given that at the Temple of Denderah the story of the Immaculate Conception, death and resurrection is recorded in engravings in the stones of the Temple walls.


Having studied this and the Moral Laws of MЗ‘T/Maat from the Kushite/Kemetic Spiritual Texts in the PRT M HRU: Book of Coming Forth By Day, his notes show that Mhenga Garvey incorporated the ethical laws known as the forty-two Admonitions of MЗ‘T/Maat, which are the origin of the ‘Ten Commandments’ of Judaism and Christianity, into the Afrikan Orthodox Church as well.


Realizing the importance of the Utambuzi [Kiswahili: Consciousness] shaping subjects of history, education and power Mhenga Garvey wrote extensively on the subjects and made them a central part of his work. On the importance of history, Mhenga Garvey stated: [3]

“The history of a movement, the history of a nation, the history of a race is the guide-post of that movement's destiny, that nation's destiny, that race's destiny.”


With regards to the importance and life enhancing prerequisite of power as force Mhenga Garvey wrote quite eloquently that:


The powers opposed to Negro progress will not be influenced in the slightest by mere verbal protests on our part. They realize only too well that protests of this kind contain nothing but the breath expended in making them. They also realize that their success in enslaving and dominating the darker portion of humanity was due solely to the element of force employed (in the majority of cases this was accomplished by force of arms. Pressure of course may assert itself in other forms, but in the last analysis whatever influence is brought to bear against the powers opposed to Negro progress must contain the element of FORCE in order to accomplish its purpose, since it is apparent that this is the only element they recognize.”


On education as a result of his extensive studies of Utamaduni Mkubwa ya Kush and KMT/Kemet and his readings and study of the work of Mhenga Booker T. Washington Mhenga Garvey concluded:


Education is the medium by which a people are prepared for the creation of their own particular civilization, and the advancement and glory of their own race…To be learned in all that is worthwhile knowing. Not to be crammed with the subject matter of the book or the philosophy of the class room, but to store away in your head such facts as you need for the daily application of life, so that you may the better in all things understand your fellowmen, and interpret your relationship to your Creator. You can be educated in soul, vision and feeling, as well as in mind. To see your enemy and know him is a part of the complete education of man; to spiritually regulate one's self is another form of the higher education that fits man for a nobler place in life, and still, to approach your brother by the feeling of your own humanity, is an education that softens the ills of the world and makes us kind indeed. Many a man was educated outside the school room. It is something you let out, not completely take in. You are part of it, for it is natural; it is dormant simply because you will not develop it, but God creates every man with it knowingly or unknowingly to him who possesses it—that's the difference. Develop yours and you become as great and full of knowledge as the other fellow without even entering the class room.


From this philosophical foundation Mhenga Garvey advocated and implemented plans designed to achieve the development of an Afrikan spiritual, political, economic and military power.


A global power developed, organized and administered by Watu Weusi protecting the interests of Global Afrikan people.


The Garveyite Movement was a Pan-Afrikan mono-racialist movement predicated on Waafrika Weusi agency given the horrendous position of Waafrika Weusi people at the time. 


There was no confusion over who was Afrikan for no White Supremacist Eurasian settler colonialist, no Eurasian migrant opportunist businessperson or worker from India,[4] no racist settler colonialist from the Arabian Peninsula and no mentacidal Blacks or mulatto of Black and other racial mixture chose or wanted to be called Afrikan, let alone Negro, Black or Black Afrikan, they labeled themselves as anything but generally melding their personal identity with citizenship in the Imperial country. 


That being the case with the social and racial stigma being attached to any and all things Afrikan, and with Black and Afrikan being used interchangeably with Negro, Native, primitive and indigenous the Garvey Movement was mono-racialist[5] and composed of people who self-identified spiritually, cognitive-culturally, affectively, psycho-motor physiologically and socio-political economically as Black or Afrikan, holding communally defined personal identification with any of the multitude of Afrikan Mabila [Kiswahili: Ethnic Group] such as, Wazulu, Waswahili, Waigbo, Waumunankwo, Wayoruba, Wafulani, Wanath, Wanyakusa, Wahehe, Wafulani and Wasan,  irrespective of the degree of epidermal pigmentation.[6]

The actions of Mhenga Marcus Mosiah Garvey were designed to lead to the DD WЗT N ‘NX/Djed Wat en Ankh [Kush/Kemet: Stability and Resurrection] of Afrikan people creating an WHM MSW/Weheme Mesu ya Afrika under the protective guidance of a Black Afrikan ruled territorial state in the manner of the Black ruled Utamaduni Mkubwa ya Kush and KMT/Kemet, Wagadu, Neni, Songhai and Bakuba to name only a select few of the multitude of Afrikan founded and culturally organized states.


With regards to Mhenga Marcus Garvey, Mhenga Malcolm X taught that:


“It was Marcus Garvey’s philosophy of Pan-Africanism that initiated the entire freedom movement, which brought about the independence of African nations. And had it not been for Marcus Garvey, and the foundations laid by him, you would find no independent nations in the Caribbean today…All the freedom movement that is taking place right here in America today was initiated by the work and teachings of Marcus Garvey.”[7]





[1] “I asked, "Where is the black man's Government?" "Where is his King and his kingdom?" "Where is his President, his country, and his ambassador, his army, his navy, his men of big affairs?" I could not find them, and then I declared, "I will help to make them." Becoming naturally restless for the opportunity of doing something [for] the advancement of my race, I was determined that the black man would not continue to be kicked about by all the other races and nations of the world, as I saw it in the West Indies, South and Central America and Europe, and as I read of it in America. My young and ambitious mind led me into flights of great imagination. I saw before me then, even as I do now, a new world of black men, not peons, serfs, dogs and slaves, but a nation of sturdy men making their impress upon civilization and causing a new light to dawn upon the human race. I could not remain in London any more. My brain was afire. There was a world of thought to conquer. I had to start ere it became too late and the work be not done. Immediately I boarded a ship at Southampton for Jamaica, where I arrived on July 15, 1914. The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities (Imperial) League was founded and organized five days after my arrival, with the program of uniting all the Negro peoples of the world into one great body to establish a country and Government absolutely their own.  Where did the name of the organization come from? It was while speaking to a West Indian Negro who was a passenger with me from Southampton, who was returning home to the West Indies from Basutoland with his Basuto wife, that I further learned of the horrors of native life in Africa. He related to me in conversation such horrible and pitiable tales that my heart bled within me. Retiring from the conversation to my cabin, all day and the following night I pondered over the subject matter of that conversation, and at midnight, lying flat on my back, the vision and thought came to me that I should name the organization the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities (Imperial) League. Such a name I thought would embrace the purpose of all black humanity. Thus to the world a name was born, a movement created, and a man became known.”  Marcus Garvey, "The Negro's Greatest Enemy", Current History (September, 1923)
[2] Duse Mohamed, In the Land of the Pharaohs: A Short History of Egypt from the Fall of Ismail to the Assassination of Boutros (London: Stanley Paul & Company, 1911)
[3] Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey Ed. Amy Jacques-Garvey (New York: Athenaeum, 1969)
[4] An example of the general Indian opportunistic attitude is best summed up by the life of Mahatma Gandhi in South Afrika 6134- 6155 KC [1893-1914 CE]. Gandhi, a high caste Hindu and a committed British subject and imperial loyalist who wanted to achieve the rights of British citizens for Indians was not and never would be a racial egalitarian, even his policy towards the Black Dalits of India were tame to say the least.  He was committed to racial purity and in 6147 KC [1906 CE] fought in the derogatively labeled ‘Kaffir Wars’ for the British against the Zulu Empire, offered to organize an Indian Brigade and recieved the Victoria War Medal for his service against the Zulu.  Consider this excerpt: “Gandhi was not a whit less racist than the white racists of South Africa. When Gandhi formed the Natal Indian Congress on August 22, 1894, the no. 1 objective he declared was: “To promote concord and harmony among the Indians and Europeans in the Colony.” [Collected Works (CW)1 pp. 132-33]...Addressing a public meeting in Bombay on Sept. 26 1896 (CW II p. 74), Gandhi said: Ours is one continued struggle against degradation sought to be inflicted upon us by the European, who desire to degrade us to the level of the raw Kaffir, whose occupation is hunting and whose sole ambition is to collect a certain number of cattle to buy a wife with, and then pass his life in indolence and nakedness.  In 1904, he wrote (CW. IV p. 193): It is one thing to register natives who would not work, and whom it is very difficult to find out if they absent themselves, but it is another thing -and most insulting -to expect decent, hard-working, and respectable Indians, whose only fault is that they work too much, to have themselves registered and carry with them registration badges... Clause 200 makes provision for registration of persons belonging to uncivilized races (meaning the local Africans), resident and employed within the Borough. One can understand the necessity of registration of Kaffirs who will not work, but why should registration be required for indentured Indians who have become free, and for their descendants about whom the general complaint is that they work too much? The Indian Opinion published an editorial on September 9 1905 under the heading, “The relative Value of the Natives and the Indians in Natal”. In it Gandhi referred to a speech made by Rev. Dube, a most accomplished African, who said that an African had the capacity for improvement, if only the Colonials would look upon him as better than dirt, and give him a chance to develop self-respect. Gandhi suggested that “A little judicious extra taxation would do no harm; in the majority of cases it compels the native to work for at least a few days a year.” Then he added: Now let us turn our attention to another and entirely unrepresented community-the Indian. He is in striking contrast with the native. While the native has been of little benefit to the State, it owes its prosperity largely to the Indians. While native loafers abound on every side, that species of humanity is almost unknown among Indians here. Nothing could be further from the truth, that Gandhi fought against Apartheid, which many propagandists in later years wanted people to believe. He was all in favour of continuation of white domination and oppression of the blacks in South Africa.  From: Fazlul Huq, Gandhi: Saint or Sinner? (Bangalore: Dalit Sahitya Akademy, 1992); See also: Richard Grenier, “The Gandhi Nobody KnowsCommentary (March 1983) pp. 59-72.  Indian society is rife with a White Supremacist attitudes and policies towards the Black Dalits or so-called Untouchables and Indians when they come to Afrika  they in general bring and practice those same attitudes.  They came and come to Afrika for economic exploitation only generally opposing egalitarian none capitalist exploitation measures given that they profit from the current system. If in their own land they treat Afrikans [Dalits] horrifically and subhumanly it is wishful thinking to believe that they will do otherwise in Afrika. Even those few who do not fall into this generalization, are exceptions which prove the rule.
[5] Chinweizu, ‘‘Neo-Garveyism or Continentalism—the Pan-Africanism for the 21st century’’ (Festac Town Lagos, Nigeria: Chinweizu, 2010)

[6] The situation is slightly reversed now as those who benefited to differing degrees under colonialism and were joyfully non-Black Afrikan have attempted to carve out a space for themselves in the ‘post-independence’ era by universalizing the name Afrikan to include the descendants of colonizers and enslavers and dissociating Afrikan from Black and accusing anyone who advocates Black control in the ‘Land of the Blacks’, Pan-Afrikanism or Black Consciousness of reverse-racism.  Mhenga Stephen Bantu Biko provided a poignant response to such fallacies: Those who know, define racism as discrimination by a group against another for the purposes of subjugation or maintaining subjugation. In other words one cannot be a racist unless he has the power to subjugate. What blacks are doing is merely to respond to a situation in which they find themselves the objects of white racism. We are in the position in which we are because of our skin. We are collectively segregated against -- what can be more logical than for us to respond as a group? When workers come together under the auspices of a trade union to strive for the betterment of their conditions, nobody expresses surprise in the Western world. It is the done thing. Nobody accuses them of separatist tendencies. Teachers fight their battles, garbage men do the same, nobody acts as a trustee for another. Somehow, however, when blacks want to do their thing the liberal establishment seems to detect an anomaly. This is in fact a counter anomaly. The anomaly was there in the first instance when the liberals were presumptuous enough to think that it behooved them to fight the battle for the blacks.” From: Stephen Bantu Biko, I Write What I Like, (Oxford: Heinemann Educational Books, 1987) I disagree however with Stephen Bantu Biko on one point, as we are in the position that we are in due to our loss of power, and failure to recognize the sadist pathological nature of the whites as well as their use of racism/White Supremacy to maintain a dominant position of power. To say that it is because of ‘our skin’ places the issue with ourselves at the biological level and thus makes it inherent to us and that is a fallacious argument to say the least for it implies that if we were not Black we would not be in this position. Therefore we should change our skin and the problem would be solved. This position is obviously erroneous.

[7] Yael Lotan, “Malcolm X, Interview” The Daily Gleaner Sunday Magazine (July 12, 1964) pp. 5-6

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